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A history which in finished more, we try by this approach to you communicate the ups and downs of Ceramics manufactures, it is impossible to stop with only one manufacture, so this document will be into perpetual change. You can contribute to this study, send to us your comments Christiaens Antique's

Soft paste porcelain of Rouen. (1673-

The first soft paste porcelain manufacture in east France was from the faience manufacturers of Rouen "Louis and Michel Poterat" of which the first obtained a privilege in October 1673. The only part which can be allotted to her with certainty it is the mustard pot of the museum of Sevres with weapons of Asselin de Villequier, adviser at the Parliament of Rouen. The first porcelains of Rouen and Saint-Cloud, are extremely delicate and very translucent. They carry a blue camaieu decoration, lambrequins and embroideries, light compositions in the taste of the arabesques of Berain. This porcelain comprised blue decorations on a greenish enamel. With his death in 1696, Louis Poterat, sweep away the secrecy of the soft paste.

Soft paste porcelain of Saint-Cloud (1677 – 1766)

Pierre Chicaneau in his manufacture of Saint-Cloud, who conduct since 1675 the earthenware manufacture, found in 1678 a formula of soft paste which exploited starting from the beginning of the XVIIIe century its widow Berthe Coudray, then its second husband in 1722: Henri-Charles Trou and his children, continue manufacture until 1766. At the beginning the parts are modest, decorated with embroideries painted into camaieu blue, then, Saint-Cloud copied the Eastern decorations with gold and polychromy. The mark is a sun in blue in homage to Louis XIV; at the time of Henri Trou mark STC corresponds. All the parts have a yellowish aspect.

Soft paste porcelain of Chantilly (1725 -)

It is at the instigation of Louis-Henri de Bourbon, prince of Condé and in his own field, which was created in 1725 the manufacture of Chantilly (defector of Saint-Cloud) whose activity was maintained until the end of the XVIIIe century. The rich personal collection of Japanese porcelains of Imari with Kakiemon style, which the prince of Condé had, provides to the ceramists of Chantilly their first source of inspiration. In Chantilly the paste is yellowish, as this one is not white enough, it is covered with a lead-containing varnish (mixture of tin oxide to the glaze) translucent or with a white stanniferous enamel, the yellowish shard is thus camouflaged by the whiteness of the glaze, this technique is used until 1751. Thanks to this employment, they succeeded in imitating these porcelains with exactitude. After 1751, the style of Chantilly is an imitation of Vincennes and Sevres. With the end of the XVIII, Chantilly adopts a more simplistic production in blue camaieu decoration. Robert Dubois born in 1709 in Bezancourt close to Pontoise (Seine-Maritime) is shooter and was employed by Chantilly since 1732. One also finds there his brother Gilles (born in 1713 in Bezancourt) between 1736 et 1738
1738 :
Departure of Dubois towards Vincennes.
The usual mark is a hunting horn, drawn in red for the first period, in blue during the second.
1753-1754 : Alum addition in the paste, Chantilly buys the manufactoring processes in Vincennes, by a defector (Jean-Mathias Caillat), but this operation will displease some has its majesty the King Louis XV, who sends the salesman to meditate in prison, it should be said that its majesty was shareholder of the manufacture of Vincennes.
1758 : Robert Dubois arrives of Tournai with several workmen of Tournai, of which his brother-in-law Cerisier present with him since the beginning.
After the closing of Chantilly, factories founded in the same area continued a similar production, and their achievements carry the mark to the hunting horn used to Chantilly, it is sometimes accompanied by initial by its owner: a "P" for Pigory, initials "M. A" for Michel-Isaac Aaron.

Soft paste porcelaine of Mennecy (1737-1773)

A factory is born in 1737 in Mennecy in the castle of the duke of Villeroy, then in 1750 in the village even of Mennecy (department of Seine-and-Oise). The paste of Mennecy is amber, of tonality ivory or milky. It copies Saint-Cloud, Chantilly, Vincennes or Meissen. It runs up against the monopoly of Sevres and cannot employ gold. At this point in time they produce small objects.

Soft paste porcelain of Bourg-La-Reine (1766-

It is into 1766 that manufacture is born, are the owners of Mennecy who open this one, one prolongs the style Louis XV there...

Soft paste porcelain of Vincennes (1738-1756) Transfert to Sèvres 1756

The two Dubois brothers have quit the manufacture of Chantilly for establish with Claude-Hubert Gérin the porcelain factory of Vincennes. Its beginnings, very modest, are placed however under the protection of high-ranking persons.
In 1738 "Robert" and "Gilles Dubois" saying owner of the trade secrets of the porcelain presented themselves at the adviser of State and intendant of finances Orry de Fulvy. This one eager to support the development of porcelain industry in France, made them quickly obtain a room in the castle of Vincennes and important subsidies. It is Claude-Hubert Gérin who will produce for the 1st time in France a porcelain to tend really white and translucent (Alum contribution in the paste). It should be said that the father Jesuit of Entrecolles did not have nothing to do there, whereas it preach the fine words in China, he had profited to visit the important porcelain centers, very annoyed to describe manufacture (then unknown in France), he used his own words to describe the trade secret of it, he mentioned in particular a material holding place of kaolin, Hoa-ché ("stone or mineral similar to alun")this one will be introduced into a calcining.
1743 : the three founders of manufacture are driven out by the marquis of fulvy for financial troubles. Dubois will pass by Paris, then Valenciennes to arrive at Saint-Amand by the Dorez, it is into Saint Amand les eaux that Robert remarie with Joséphine Cerisier. The company knew many vicissitudes: entrusted to "Gravant" worker of Dubois, assembled in company in the name of "Charles Adam", then, in 1751, the three founders of manufacture are driven out by the marquis of fulvy for financial troubles. Dubois will pass by Paris, then Valenciennes to arrive at Saint-Amand by the Dorez, it is into Saint Amand les eaux that Robert remarie with Joséphine Cerisier. The company knew many vicissitudes: entrusted to "Gravant" worker of Dubois, assembled in company in the name of "Charles Adam", then, 1749 the "royal blue" (blue dark) discovered by Hellot appears.
3 May 1751 : death of Orry de Fulvy, in 1752, famous turquoise blue, one and the other drawn from cobalt.
1752, it is also the arrival of Gilles Dubois (again) with Jean-Baptist Chanou, they come all two from Tournay, with the trade secret of the hard porcelain, in fact they are sent by Peterinck for espionner and to discharge skilled workers for the manufacture of Tournay. Two sculptors of Vincennes, Jean-Pierre Varion and Jean Chaponnet, leave manufacture, Varion will be stopped, Chaponnet will arrive at Tournai in 1753.
In 1753, the marchioness of Pompadour interests in it the king who becomes one of the principal shareholders, she was eager to become the girlfriend of the King: the factory becomes "royal porcelain manufacture", it began its official career, employing in a usual manner, the mark of the two "L" interlaced of one or two letters of the alphabet corresponding to the successive years. Jean-Claude Duplessis, employed since 1748, and Jean-Jacques Bachelier, posts some since 1 January 1751 were confirmed in their functions 1751: Engagement of Hendrik Van Hulst like advising artistic, the change of style was immediate.
April 1754: death of Van Hulst, the project to engage Falconet to promote biscuit is considered
In 1756, Vincennes is transferred in Sevres. the great skill of the ceramists of Vincennes, it is to have understood and exploited to the maximum paramount quality of the matter that they treated. SEVRES.
In 1756, the manufacture of Vincennes is transferred in Sevres, it was installed with large expenses in the park of the Castle of Guyarde, old field of the Lulli musician; but its businesses remained precarious, and it was necessary to save it that the king repurchased it, October first, 1759, and made it exploit for its account by pouring an annual subsidy to him. "Hellot" was attached of 1751 in 1766 in Sevres, and "Macquer" assistant with this last since 1757.
1757 to 1766, the zippy pink known under the name of "Pompadour pink" enjoyed a great vogue. Then the yellow-jonquil, rarer, it come purple-thought, the green apple, posed on the glaze. Gold finally (privilege so bitterly defended by Vincennes) employee in thickness, nail browned, plays a dominating part in the pallet of Sevres. During all the XVIIIe century a whole host of stars attached to manufacture, or collaborating narrowly in its work, ensured the value of its production.
1750-1769, , it is the apogee of the soft paste, original time of the French porcelain which is released from the influence of Saxe and the East, that where paintings triumph over birds and flowers. The polychrome landscapes or in camaieu purple, gallant sheep-folds and scenes, the marine or military subjects painted by artists specialized in this kind, the sets of children, the groups of loves according to Boucher, the subjects borrowed from contemporary painting supplement the usual repertory. The ceramists of Sevres, arrived to a very great skill in the shaping of the soft paste, succeeded, in spite of its lack of plasticity, to create decorative parts, giving more and more importance to the modelled ornamentation.
After 1751, the use of the matt biscuit, in order to leave with modelled all its smoothness, made it possible in Sevres to establish perfect reduction of works of the contemporary sculpture.
From 1771 at the end of the century, the manufacture of the soft paste continued that of the hard paste parallel to, and it was even very often preferred for luxurious decorations of tables because of the richness of its pallet.
About 1780 a curious attempt was made by the enameller Jean Cotteau to adapt to the decoration of the porcelain to tighten translucent enamels on gold spangles. One applied this decoration to the toilet that Marie Antoinette offered to the future empress of Russia. Lending itself so well to the richest decorations, the soft paste porcelain kept some favour as long as with manufacture the forms Louis XV were prolonged. But the ancient style was appropriate to him badly and marked its decline. It disappeared little by little in front of the hard porcelain lasts whose paste and enamels did not cease improving. We know that Sevres tried to remake soft paste porcelain about the middle of 19th. It so asked the formula into Tournay, it received that of very vagueness indications, the manufacture of Tournay protected certainly the production of Saint-Amand, who produced very many decorative soft paste porcelain parts (in the taste of Sevres)

Soft paste porcelain of Chelsea (1740-1784)

The porcelain of Chelsea will come one day from 1740, it is installed in a suburb of London, it is a goldsmith who melts this one, certain Sprimont, manufacture is private and will remain it during all its history. It uses at the beginning of the soft paste porcelain which it leaves most of the time blank, the remainder of the production is inspired by Meissen. About 1758, Sprimont adds powder of bone in its paste to produce "bone china", it adopts a style rubble inspired of Vincennes, the subjects are inspired by engravings of the XVII and XVIII, like the herbarium to sir Sloane or the engraving of Edwards. The maunufacture is repurchased by Derby, it will close its doors in 1784.

Soft paste porcelain of Tournay (1751 – 1890)

At the end of 1750, beginning of 1751 : A certain François-Joseph Peterinck, born in Lille in 1709, merchant of coal in Ath and former officer of the French Army, married to Anne-Marie Deswattines, repurchases the earthenware manufacture of Carpentier to manufacture there in more of earthenware, a soft paste porcelain. At the time of the sale of the faience manufacture, Carpentier without any doubt introduced the Dubois brothers who were employed in his Dorez brother-in-law (faience in Valenciennes and Saint-Amand). With technical and innovating ideas, and a stockholders' equity, he unearths the Dubois brothers (famous ceramists) and in fact associates. The brothers worked there since 1749.
The brothers Dubois transfer of manufactures of Saint-Cloud, Chantilly, Vincennes and Valenciennes, work in Saint-Amand in the manufacture which Pierre-Barthelemy Dorez directs, brother-in-law of Carpentier. A contract is elaborate between Robert Dubois, the elder turner and Peterinck. Dubois bring "Arts and sciences" in the composition of the paste and the colors (as well out of porcelain as out of earthenware).
1751 : Peterinck present at Charles of Lorraine a gloss of porcelain (manufactured by the Dubois brothers) composed of two stages, interlaced of 16 branches, the quantity of flowers is considerable. It obtains a 30 years monopoly by the governor General (Charles of Lorraine).
1751 : Caillat come from Vincennes sells the secrecies of the colors to Péterinck, Caillat will make in the same way a little later in Chantilly. Gilles Dubois does not remain in Tournaisienne manufacture and share to Vincennes in 1752 with his comrade Chanou junior, where it proposes the receipt of the porcelain hard paste. Robert Dubois appears alone and is mentioned as director of manufacture where it was personally occupied to mould, turn and to supervise cookings.
In 1752, Prince Charles of Lorraine, governor of the Netherlands grants to the manufacture of Tournay the title of Imperial and royal, it is authorized to place the weapons of its Majesty, it is also authorized to choose a specific mark for the porcelain of Tournay, Peterinck choose the Tower symbol of Tournay. This mark is used until 1763, then one will find the cross swords and small crosses. One will also find in the manufacture of the artists like Nicolas Gauron, Antoine Gillis... François Carpentier: set up the factory of earthenware to the quay of the Salines 1750
Borne : Painter on earthenware in Rouen (25 years) arrives at Tournai in 1752. Excel painter on earthenware (biblical and mythological) Signature and date two large dishes round representing one Venus and Adomis (1736), the other the 4 seasons (1738), it leaves Rouen for Sinceny (1 year) then arrives at Tournai with son, brother and 2 other companions (all painters on earthenware).
1755 : : Borne share of the manufacture of Tournay towards Mons and carries with him the moulds. It would have returned to Tournay? (deceased in 1772)
6 May 1755 : Arrived of a new chief of the painters called Cardon of Bertauvillet.(origin of Soissons), he is the director of the porcelain painters and Japonees earthenware. Jean-Claude Cardon of Bertauvillet provides the compositions of the colors of Saxe, gildings and other secrecies. Jean-Claude arrives directly from Strasbourg, it would have received these secrecies of Johann-Gottlieb Roth (painter in Strasbourg) which itself would have received them when it worked with A-F Von Lowenfinck at Meissen and Höechst (from 1747 to 1748)
1756 : Peterinck is ruined by the development of the soft paste and there is seen in the obligation to join two backers (Caters and Van Schoor) Peterinck remains owner for 1/3 of manufacture.
1756 : Antoine Gillis born in Dôle (worked in Valenciennes) it worked on the sculpture of the Pulpit of Truth of the Cathedral of Tournay, he worked there until 1764 One finds Robert Dubois in Chantilly in 1758 with several workmen of Tournay, of which his Cerisier brother-in-law present with him since the beginning.
1759 : Robert Dubois deccease in Chantilly (in Oise)
1758 : Nicolas GAURON is a foreman of the model and finisher until 1764, front, it worked as moulder with Mennecy-Villeroi (1753) and 1754 in Vincennes!! 1761 : Peterinck refuses divulger the secrecies of the soft paste to his associates, he will be imprisoned.
1762 : Peterinck is given in freedom thanks to the intervention of the Count Cobenzl
1763 : The artistic direction is under Michel-Joseph Duvivier, he was specialized in the painting of the river landscapes and the birds waders to the imaginary colors. It is the period of the technical perfection, the handles twisted and the made up catch of lid. The decorations are gold magnify engraved. The degrading are used, the camaieux purple or green, the loves of Boucher, the flowers, the landscapes river or marine, the birds of imaginations, the vegetables, etc...
31 january 1768, the artistic Director of the manufacture of Tournay, Michel-Joseph Duvivier receives the honorary mark of Charles of Lorraine, Governor of the Netherlands, who will be contradictable... Charles of Lorraine has his own porcelain factory into the castle of Tervuren, in the Cour Brulée (old palate of the Dukes of Bourgogne), a workshop of decorative painting and of small fire on porcelain is installed there, 5 people work there, the direction of this small manufacture is directed by Georg-Christoph Lindemann, 2 painters, 1 moulder and 1 operator. Why this precision on this manufacture? and well, the mill and the furnace were delivered in 1768 by the manufacture of Tournay and the trade secrets and the moulds were given to the Governor, from where confusion enters Tournai and Tervuren, moreover of the white porcelains were dispatched to be decorated there. Destruction of this Cour Brulée in 1774. A set of table appeared in Germany and brings invaluable information... Dinner service of Prince de Starhemberg, offered by Charles of Lorraine and successor of Cobenzl 1770-1783. A set of 68 parts of which some are signed by Lindemann and/or are marked by the Cross of Lorraine. The edge of the parts is divided by four reserves decorated with bunches of flowers and alternated by squarings binds wine. The center surrounded of a green rubble, is decorated landscapes finely painted in the taste of the achievements of Lindemann with Nymphenburg, on the other hand the flowers are successful (other painters?). Gold is also flatter, it exists other services where the squaring binds wine is separated by garlands flowered out of gold. Lindemann Georg-Christoph born in Dresden, in Germany. Chief of the painters in Nymphenburg from 1758 à 1760, , then into the manufacture of Höchst. Charles of Lorraine: dies in 1780, its Castle is demolished one year later. Cobenzl (count): patron of the manufacture of Tournai, he resides at the Mastaing hotel in Brussels, dies in 1770. A funeral inventory is established: 378 parts decoration of flowers and edges gilded 12 plates decorated with purple flowers (manganeses?) 12 green plates white zone and flowers Statuettes and groups in great number The service ordered by Cobenzl (betweene 1763 et 1770) is decorated with a butterfly in blue represented in a encircled medallion into a Greek gold garland , the galon takes again this Greek garland and is underlined flowers of lily magnify of a engraved gold a beautiful thickness (several part hundred) One finds in a purchase order of 1765: 220 parts including 44 fruit dishes of 11 different forms.
Period magnificence 1770 – 1776
1771 : François of Musellerie is the first painter of the manufacture. Manufacture has a store in Cadiz in Spain and another in Amsterdam. Export to Russia. During some fifty year, the artistic director will remain the same one namely Joseph Mayer.
1775 : The forms rubbles are abandoned, the forms and more rigid lines and simpler are adopted. The decorations become simpler and light.
1776-1790 : The manufacture of Tournay sends white, white and blue porcelain towards Den Hague to be decorated there in polychromy low fire. The manufacture of Den Hague is directed by Antoon Lyncker. The Duke of Orleans, cousin of the King Louis XVI orders a service of 1600 parts decorated with birds copied of the natural history of the birds of Buffon. This service will never be paid!
1798 : Peterinck sells manufacture with one of his daughters, Amélie, married with the lawyer Jean-Maximilien de Bettignies. Plate of marriage of Amélie and Jean-Maximilien (1783). Peterinck dies in 1799 at the 80 years old
En 1800, the forms simpler, are refined, the market becomes vaster, manufacture is directed towards the series production. Jean-Maximilien dies in 1802, his wife Amélie directs the factory until 1808, there, she yields manufacture has three of her eight children, Henri, Olympe and Nathalie, young person marries Ragon Jean-Batiste which will take the direction. A certain Maurice Saint-Léger will take share in the new company called "Ragon, de Bettignies and Co", the bankruptcy will be marked in 1814. Representatives of the Commercial court are sent to supervise there and to direct the operations of the manufacture, Charles Le Coq is an provisional administrator and invites the new sovereign Guillaume 1st and the porcelain orders are followed from there. A great dinner service including 79 dozen dinner plates decorated with Greek garland on the edge, and carries in the center the royal figure W surmounted of a crown (W = Willem).
En 1815, the syndic sells the factory to Olympe de Bettignies, 2 years later his brother Henri repurchases it to him (1817), it will keep it during 33 years (1850), it will sell it at the Company Boch and Frères.
About the years 1830, the customers begin to ask at the manufacture of parts in the style of 1760 and this one remakes scalloped plates and gadroons. To the XIX, manufacture specialized in the realization of services intended for corporations. The shooting clubs of archers, of principal rafters and arquebusiers are its principal customers. From this period one also finds the design with figures. France founds a prohibitory import duty for the production of Tournay, so to cure it, Henri de Bettignies creates a deposit then a factory into Saint-Amand-Les-Eaux (1817) It is his young brother Maximilien who will take the direction of it. Another manufacture will take the day with Saint-Amand (thanks to defectors of tournay), one finds a former painter there and porcelain merchant of Tournay, François Bastenaire and a associate Piat Dorchies. Bastenaire leaves for Paris in 1819. Fauquez with left Tournay beginning 19th toward Saint Amand. Towards 1820 Henri de Bettignies asks King Guillaume 1st to acquire a luxury service, the service is named "with the large birds" to differentiate it from the birds of Buffon ordered by the Duke of Orleans (1787). A part of this service was painted by Joseph Mayer (1825). This service was offered to Charles Le Coq de Pletincx. Dorchies sells manufacture in 1833 to Triboullet (underdirector of Sevres) which will resell it in 1837 to Maximilien de Bettignies. Manufacture installed on the hillock of the mill of the Wolves, it produced soft paste porcelain, having the same manufactoring process, it will be also confused with that of Tournay. Stanniferous earthenware there will be also manufactured. Soft paste porcelain of Saint-Amand. Eugenie (Empress of the French), the Victoria Queen and the royal family of the Netherlands are customers of manufacture. About 1860, the two son of Maximilien-Joseph are formed at the Sèvres china school, thanks to their knowledge to make, it launches out in the manufacture of fine earthenware, he deceased in 1865. Two son; Maximilien and Henri continue the family affairs.
1880, the manufacture of Saint-Amand is sold to Brasseurs who devote themselves only to fine earthenware. Let us return to manufacture of tournay, about 1850, Hubert Dasseborne who works since 1829 in the Boch faience manufactures is named director of manufacture of tournay, and recruits workmen whose Jean-Baptist Mouzin (Printer, decorator) celebrates it. It is well during this time that one will find the parts with decorations posed by transfer, such as decorations of monkeys, landscapes, children.
1875, Hubert Dasseborne dies and manufacture remains four years without director, the assessment is overdrawn.
En 1882, a Parisian Charles Levy is named director, he reorientates himself towards the hard porcelain, but continues the soft paste. The fall is inevitable, the shareholders file for bankruptcy on July 15, 1889. Kéramis repurchases moulds and engraved boards. The workmen are directed towards the manufacture of Sarreguemines.
Last cooking on August 21, 1890.

Museum of Mariemont
Museum of Decorative Arts in Tournai
Museum of the Fiftieth anniversary in Brussels
Reading
E Soil de Moriame: Manufacture Impériale and Royal of Porcelain of Tournai
A.M. MARIEN-DUGARDIN: Porcelains of Tournai
DEROUBAIX: The porcelains of Tournai of the Museum of Mariemont.
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